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Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris)



Interactions

Beans/Drug Interactions:
  • AntidiabeticsAntidiabetics: In animal research, bean preparations lowered serum glucose (46; 70). Similarly, in diabetic subjects, a one week diet of green beans decreased blood glucose (47). In other human studies, the increase in postprandial plasma glucose was less with a meal prepared with precooked bean flakes than with potato (19; 48).
  • AntifungalsAntifungals: In laboratory research, bean extract inhibited mycelial growth in Valsa mali, Mycosphaerella arachidicola, Helminthosporium maydis, Fusarium oxysporum, Verticillium dahliae, Rhizoctonia solani, Candida albicans, and Setosphaeria turcica (71; 16).
  • AntihypertensivesAntihypertensives: In human research, bean extract decreased blood pressure in overweight and obese subjects (51).
  • AntilipemicsAntilipemics: In human and animal research, beans lowered total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides, and increased HDL cholesterol (2; 72; 73; 47; 46; 74; 75). Of note, one study reported that bean consumption lowered HDL cholesterol; however, the researchers did not find an explanation for this (52).
  • AntineoplasticsAntineoplastics: In cohort research, dry bean consumption was inversely associated with advanced adenoma recurrence (76). In laboratory research, beans demonstrated antiproliferative and anti-angiogenic effects in colon, breast, prostate, cervical, and hepatoma HepG2 cancer cells (77; 16; 71).
  • Antiobesity agentsAntiobesity agents: In human research, bean extract decreased body weight, body fat, and waist circumference in overweight and obese subjects (51; 2; 4; 78; 57; 45). Amylase inhibitors, found in beans, slow the absorption of carbohydrates through the inhibition of enzymes responsible for their digestion (7; 8; 9; 12). In human research, bean supplement extract increased fat excretion in feces (51). Studies have also found that beans may reduce the rate of gastric emptying and increase carbohydrate oxidation (5; 19; 79). A specific proprietary product called Phase 2® Carb Controller (Pharmachem Laboratories, Kearny, NJ) has been found in clinical research to prevent the digestion of complex carbohydrates and promote modest weight loss effects (45; 57).
  • AntiretroviralsAntiretrovirals: In laboratory research, beans have been found to inhibit HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (16; 71).
  • LaxativesLaxatives: Beans offer a substantial amount of dietary fiber and may be beneficial on colonic function (80). In humans, bean consumption produced greater fecal output and increased the concentrations of volatile fatty acid excretion (80; 66).

Beans/Herb/Supplement Interactions:
  • Amino acidsAmino acids: In human research, DL-methionine increased protein quality of extruded beans; tryptophan had a lack of an effect (81).
  • AntifungalsAntifungals: In laboratory research, bean extract inhibited mycelial growth in Valsa mali, Mycosphaerella arachidicola, Helminthosporium maydis, Fusarium oxysporum, Verticillium dahliae, Rhizoctonia solani, Candida albicans, and Setosphaeria turcica (71; 16).
  • AntilipemicsAntilipemics: In human and animal research, beans lowered total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides, and increased HDL cholesterol (2; 72; 73; 47; 46; 74; 75). Of note, one study reported that bean consumption lowered HDL cholesterol; however, the researchers did not find an explanation for this (52).
  • AntineoplasticsAntineoplastics: In cohort research, dry bean consumption was inversely associated with advanced adenoma recurrence (76). In laboratory research, beans demonstrated antiproliferative and anti-angiogenic effects in colon, breast, prostate, cervical, and hepatoma HepG2 cancer cells (77; 16; 71).
  • Antiobesity agentsAntiobesity agents: In human research, bean extract decreased body weight, body fat, and waist circumference in overweight and obese subjects (51; 2; 4; 78; 57; 45). Amylase inhibitors, found in beans, slow the absorption of carbohydrates through the inhibition of enzymes responsible for their digestion (7; 8; 9; 12). In human research, bean supplement extract increased fat excretion in feces (51). Studies have also found that beans may reduce the rate of gastric emptying and increase carbohydrate oxidation (5; 19; 79). A specific proprietary product called Phase 2® Carb Controller (Pharmachem Laboratories, Kearny, NJ) has been found in clinical research to prevent the digestion of complex carbohydrates and promote modest weight loss effects (45; 57).
  • AntioxidantsAntioxidants: In human lung fibroblasts, a water-soluble protein from beans was found to reduce oxidized glutathione concentrations and thereby reduce cellular aging (10).
  • AntiviralsAntivirals: In laboratory research, beans have been found to inhibit HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (16; 71).
  • Folic acidFolic acid: In human research, beans reduced serum folic acid, but these levels remained within normal range (2). In other human research, beans minimized the difference in absorption of monoglutamyl (PteGlu) and heptaglutamyl folic acid (PteGlu7) (49).
  • HypoglycemicsHypoglycemics: In animal research, bean preparations lowered serum glucose (46; 70). Similarly, in diabetic subjects, a one-week diet of green beans decreased blood glucose (47). In other human research, the increase in postprandial plasma glucose was less with a meal prepared with precooked bean flakes than with potato (19; 48).
  • HypotensivesHypotensives: In human research, bean extract decreased blood pressure in overweight and obese subjects (51).
  • IronIron: In human research, polyphenols and phytic acid found in beans contributed to lowering of iron absorption (50). In anemic children, refried beans with beans fortified with a heme iron or ferrous sulfate did not alter ferritin concentrations; however, after post hoc analysis, children with initially high or initially low ferritin concentrations showed significantly higher hemoglobin increments after 10 weeks of intervention with heme-fortified beans than with beans only or beans fortified with inorganic iron (6). In anemic children, refried beans fortified with heme iron or ferrous sulfate increased hemoglobin concentrations after 10 weeks (6).
  • LaxativesLaxatives: Beans offer a substantial amount of dietary fiber and may be beneficial for colonic function (80). In humans, bean consumption produced greater fecal output and increased the concentrations of volatile fatty acid excretion (80; 66).
  • SodiumSodium: Based on experimental research, salt may enhance the mutagenicity of nitrosated black beans (82).
  • Vitamin B12Vitamin B12: In human research, beans reduced serum vitamin B12 concentrations, but these levels remained within normal range (2).

Beans/Food Interactions:
  • SaltSalt: Based on experimental research, salt may enhance the mutagenicity of nitrosated black beans (82).

Beans/Lab Interactions:
  • Blood pressureBlood pressure: In human research, bean extract decreased blood pressure in overweight and obese subjects (51).
  • Body weightBody weight: In human research, bean extract decreased body weight, body fat, and waist circumference in overweight and obese subjects (51; 2; 4; 78; 57; 45).
  • Cecal pHCecal pH: In animal research, bean preparations increased the pH of cecal and colonic digesta (46)
  • Cholecystokinin (CCK)Cholecystokinin (CCK): In human research, beans increased CCK (83).
  • CopperCopper: In animals fed a diet of pinto beans, copper concentrations and bioavailability were elevated (84).
  • Fatty acidsFatty acids: In animal research, bean preparations reduced the concentrations of acetic, butyric, and propionic acids (46).
  • Folic acidFolic acid: In human research, beans were found to reduce serum folic acid, but these levels remained within normal range (2). In other human research, beans minimized the difference in absorption of monoglutamyl (PteGlu) and heptaglutamyl folic acid (PteGlu7) (49).
  • GlucoseGlucose: In animal research, bean preparations were found to lower serum glucose (46; 70). Similarly, in diabetic subjects, a one-week diet of green beans decreased blood glucose (47). In other human research, the increase in postprandial plasma glucose was less with a meal prepared with precooked bean flakes than with potato (19; 48).
  • Glucose oxidationGlucose oxidation: In diabetic subjects, glucose oxidation was less during the two hours after the ingestion of a meal prepared with precooked beans compared with potatoes (19).
  • Glycemic indexGlycemic index: The glycemic index of beans varies depending on the bean, ranging from 13 to 75 (14). Canned and dried beans have been found to have a significantly lower glycemic index compared to white bread (14). When canned, however, beans tend to have a higher glycemic index (unspecified) (14). In human research, pinto bean, navy bean, and black-eyed pea consumption did not lower the glycemic response to a high-glycemic-index (unspecified) treatment in normoglycemic adults (85).
  • InsulinInsulin: In diabetic subjects, the increase in postprandial plasma insulin was less with a meal prepared with precooked bean flakes than with potato, 30 minutes after the meal (19; 48). In human research, pinto bean, navy bean, and black-eyed pea consumption did not alter insulin response or whole-body insulin sensitivity (85).
  • Iron statusIron status: In human research, polyphenols and phytic acid found in beans were found to contribute to lowering of iron absorption (50). In anemic children, refried beans with beans fortified with a heme iron or ferrous sulfate did not alter ferritin concentrations; however, after post hoc analysis, children with initially high or initially low ferritin concentrations showed significantly higher hemoglobin increments after 10 weeks of intervention with heme-fortified beans than with beans only or beans fortified with inorganic iron (6). In anemic children, refried beans fortified with heme iron or ferrous sulfate increased hemoglobin concentrations after 10 weeks (6).
  • Labile proteins (prealbumin, retinol-binding globulin, transferrin)Labile proteins (prealbumin, retinol-binding globulin, transferrin): In hypercholesterolemic adults, bean protein concentrate decreased the synthesis of labile proteins (prealbumin, retinol-binding globulin, transferrin) (86).
  • Lipid profileLipid profile: In human and animal research, beans have been found to lower total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides, and increase HDL cholesterol (2; 72; 73; 47; 46; 74; 75). One study reported bean consumption lowered HDL cholesterol; however, the researchers did not find an explanation for this (52).
  • Vitamin B12Vitamin B12: In human research, beans were found to reduce serum vitamin B12 concentrations, but these levels remained within normal range (2).

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The information in this monograph is intended for informational purposes only, and is meant to help users better understand health concerns. Information is based on review of scientific research data, historical practice patterns, and clinical experience. This information should not be interpreted as specific medical advice. Users should consult with a qualified healthcare provider for specific questions regarding therapies, diagnosis and/or health conditions, prior to making therapeutic decisions.

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