Table of Contents > Interactions & Depletions > Mustard (Brassica alba, Brassica juncea, Brassica nigra) Print

Mustard (Brassica alba, Brassica juncea, Brassica nigra)



Interactions

Mustard/Drug Interactions:
  • AnalgesicsAnalgesics: Mustard oil injection or topical application activated underlying sensory nerve endings and has been used in animal study to produce pain, headache, inflammation, and hypersensitivity to thermal and mechanical stimuli, hyperalgesia, and allodynia (260; 261; 262; 263; 264; 265; 266; 267; 268; 269; 270; 271; 272; 273; 274; 275; 276; 277; 278; 279; 280; 281; 282; 283; 284; 285; 266; 286; 287; 288; 289; 290; 291; 292; 293; 294; 295; 296; 297; 298; 299; 300; 301; 302; 303; 304; 305; 306; 307; 308; 309; 310; 311; 312; 313; 314; 315; 316; 317; 318; 319; 320; 321; 322; 323; 324; 325; 326; 327; 328; 329; 330; 101; 331; 332; 333; 334; 335; 336; 337; 338; 339; 340; 198; 341; 342; 343; 344; 345; 346; 347; 348; 349; 350; 351; 352; 353; 354; 355; 356; 357). Based on human study, topical mustard oil has been used to induce allodynia and secondary hyperalgesia (burning pain) (358; 359; 360). There are conflicting reports regarding whether anesthetics (i.e., lidocaine, morphine, pentobarbital, atipamezole, medetomidine, and bupivacaine) inhibit the neurogenic inflammation elicited by mustard oil in animals (387; 388; 389; 390; 383; 384; 342; 385; 386; 347; 393; 394).
  • AntibioticsAntibiotics: In vitro, mustard products exhibited antibacterial activity (15; 16; 17; 18; 19; 20; 21; 73; 74; 75; 76; 77; 78).
  • Anticoagulant agentsAnticoagulant agents: In rats, oral mustard oil caused increased platelet aggregation (168).
  • Antidiabetic agentsAntidiabetic agents: In animals with experimentally induced diabetes, Brassica juncea powder significantly prevented the development of insulin resistance and improved serum glucose levels (4; 66). Beneficial effects were also observed in rats taking an extract of Brassica juncea (53; 67; 68) or Brassica nigra (69; 70). Based on a review, Brassica juncea may possess hypoglycemic properties (82). In rats, Brassica juncea caused an increase in the concentration of hepatic glycogen and glycogenesis and a decrease in glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis (84).
  • Antifungal agentsAntifungal agents: In vitro, mustard products exhibited antifungal effects (34; 39; 17; 18), including against those associated with otitic fungal infection (72) and spoilage fungi commonly found on bread (40).
  • Anti-inflammatory agentsAnti-inflammatory agents: Based on animal and human study, mustard products induced inflammation (185; 186; 187; 188; 189; 190; 191; 104; 192; 193). In animal study, mustard oil has been used to produce experimental models of arthritis (194), colon inflammation (195; 196; 197), uterine inflammation (198), cutaneous inflammation (199), inflamed eye (200), inflammatory tooth pulp-induced central sensitization (201), temporomandibular inflammation (202), and acutely inflamed urinary bladder (203; 204; 205; 206). However, the constituents sinalbin and beta-sitosterol, found in Brassica alba seeds, had anti-inflammatory activities (25).
  • Antilipemic agentsAntilipemic agents: There are conflicting data from human study as to whether dietary mustard oil ingestion decreases cholesterol levels (9; 10; 7; 8). Some animal study has found that ingestion of mustard products reduced total serum cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and VLDL cholesterol, increased HDL cholesterol levels, and decreased serum lipoproteins and triglycerides (180; 168; 49), while another study found no effect (477), and another study found that short-term feeding of a 20% mustard oil caused erucic acid-induced lipidosis (181). Brassica juncea meal as protein supplement increased fat deposits in lambs (177).
  • Antineoplastic agentsAntineoplastic agents: According to reviews of human and animal studies, high intakes of Brassica vegetables (such as mustard greens) possessed anticarcinogenic properties and reduced prostate cancer risk (23; 24). In animals study, mustard products inhibited the development of stomach and uterine cervical cancer (24), prostatic hyperplasia (25), neoplasms in the colon, rectum, and intestine (28; 29; 30; 31), and tumors in the progeny of pregnant mice sensitized to tumor development (27). In mice, mustard products protected against chromosomal damage (176; 48). In vitro, mustard products inhibited the proliferation of H-ras-transformed 3Y1 cells (33), human glioblastoma cell lines (37), and human-derived hepatoma cell line (HepG2) and breast cancer (MCF7) cells (34; 35; 36). However, there is in vitro and in vivo evidence that allyl isothiocyanate was tumorigenic at high doses (?25mcM) (174; 36; 173).
  • Anti-tinea capitis agentsAnti-tinea capitis agents: In in vitro and animal study, hair oils used in India, including mustard oil, inhibited the growth of Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton rubrum, and Trichophyton mentagrophytes, which might inhibit tinea capitis (96; 97).
  • Antiviral agentsAntiviral agents: Juncin, a protein isolated from seeds of Japanese takana (Brassica juncea var. integrifolia) inhibited the activity of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (34).
  • Calcium channel blockersCalcium channel blockers: Mustard oil isothiocyanates activate the ankyrin-binding repeat subfamily, member 1 (TRPA1), a calcium-permeable channel involved in muscle nociception and hyperalgesia in sensory neurons (207; 208; 209; 210; 211; 212). Buccal adhesive tablets containing Aloe vera and Sinapis alba have been developed to improve the bioavailability of diltiazem hydrochloride (478).
  • Cardiovascular drugsCardiovascular drugs: Although there is some human evidence that regular mustard oil ingestion reduced the risk of myocardial infarction or cardiovascular disease (7; 8), one study found that it may cause degenerative cardiomyopathy (168). Animal study has reported conflicting evidence regarding the effect of mustard oil ingestion on cardiac mitochondrial oxidative capacity (170; 171). A dietary intake study reported that mustard oil extract containing alpha-linolenic acid reduced the risk of coronary artery disease (172).
  • Gastrointestinal agentsGastrointestinal agents: In mice, mustard oil administered intracolonically produced rapid, acute, and transient colitis followed later by development of accelerated upper gastrointestinal transit that resembles human postinflammatory irritable bowel syndrome (258; 179; 259). There is evidence from animal study that allyl isothiocyanate suppressed acid secretion by gastric mucosa (95).
  • ImmunosuppressantsImmunosuppressants: In animal study, mustard oil caused an increase in cytokines associated with macrophage and neutrophil activation and recruitment (258) but did not induce cutaneous neutrophil accumulation (479). In mice, mustard leaf suppressed nitric oxide synthesis by macrophages (480). However, juncin, a protein isolated from seeds of Japanese takana (Brassica juncea var. integrifolia) was devoid of nitric oxide-inducing activity toward macrophages (34).
  • LaxativesLaxatives: In animal study, mustard oil accelerated the colonic transit time (178; 179).
  • Monoamine oxidase inhibitor drugsMonoamine oxidase inhibitor drugs: In rats, an erucic-acid-rich mustard oil diet increased both the biosynthesis and maturation of monoamine oxidase (213).
  • Mosquito-repelling agentsMosquito-repelling agents: Brassica compestris oil repelled Anopheles culicifacies mosquitoes but was less effective against Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes (86). Brassica compestris decreased pupation rates and altered developmental periods and adult emergences of the Culex pipiens mosquito (87). Essential oils of Zanthoxylum limonella, Citrus aurantifolia, and Zanthoxylum limonella in a mustard oil base protected against the bites of Aedes albopictus mosquitoes (88).
  • Radiation therapyRadiation therapy: Based on animal study, repeated subinflammatory ultraviolet B irradiation augmented mustard oil-induced neurogenic inflammation in the skin (214).
  • Skin productsSkin products: Although mustard oil is used as part of a traditional oil massage to neonates in many developing countries (11), there is evidence from an animal study that topical mustard oil exhibited toxic effects on mouse epidermal barrier function (13).
  • SteroidsSteroids: In animal study, corneal stimulation with mustard oil increased the plasma concentrations of adrenocorticotropin, epinephrine, and norepinephrine and serum levels of corticosterone (182; 183; 184).
  • TobaccoTobacco: Based on epidemiological study, chemoprotective effects exhibited by dietary black mustard were inhibited by smokeless tobacco use (26).
  • VasodilatorsVasodilators: In animal study, cutaneous application, intra-arterial infusion, or oral application of mustard oil produced locally increased blood flow (98; 99; 100; 101; 102; 103; 104). However, one human study reported that topical application of mustard oil induced a decrease in skin surface temperature in both hands that was interpreted as vasoconstriction (481).

Mustard/Herb/Supplement Interactions:
  • AnalgesicsAnalgesics: Mustard oil injection or topical application activated underlying sensory nerve endings and has been used in animal study to produce pain, headache, inflammation, and hypersensitivity to thermal and mechanical stimuli, hyperalgesia, and allodynia (260; 261; 262; 263; 264; 265; 266; 267; 268; 269; 270; 271; 272; 273; 274; 275; 276; 277; 278; 279; 280; 281; 282; 283; 284; 285; 266; 286; 287; 288; 289; 290; 291; 292; 293; 294; 295; 296; 297; 298; 299; 300; 301; 302; 303; 304; 305; 306; 307; 308; 309; 310; 311; 312; 313; 314; 315; 316; 317; 318; 319; 320; 321; 322; 323; 324; 325; 326; 327; 328; 329; 330; 101; 331; 332; 333; 334; 335; 336; 337; 338; 339; 340; 198; 341; 342; 343; 344; 345; 346; 347; 348; 349; 350; 351; 352; 353; 354; 355; 356; 357). Topical mustard oil has been used in human study to induce allodynia and secondary hyperalgesia (burning pain) (358; 359; 360).
  • AntibacterialsAntibacterials: In vitro, mustard products exhibited antibacterial activity (15; 16; 17; 18; 19; 20; 21; 73; 74; 75; 76; 77; 78).
  • Anticoagulants and antiplateletsAnticoagulants and antiplatelets: In rats, oral mustard oil caused increased platelet aggregation (168).
  • AntifungalsAntifungals: In vitro, mustard products exhibited antifungal effects (34; 39; 17; 18), including against those associated with otitic fungal infection (72) and spoilage fungi commonly found on bread (40).
  • Anti-inflammatory herbs and supplementsAnti-inflammatory herbs and supplements: Based on animal and human study, mustard products induced inflammation (185; 186; 187; 188; 189; 190; 191; 104; 192; 193). In animal study, mustard oil has been used to produce experimental models of arthritis (194), colon inflammation (195; 196; 197), uterine inflammation (198), cutaneous inflammation (199), inflamed eye (200), inflammatory tooth pulp-induced central sensitization (201), temporomandibular inflammation (202), and acutely inflamed urinary bladder (203; 204; 205; 206). However, the constituents sinalbin and beta-sitosterol, found in Brassica alba seeds, had anti-inflammatory activities (25).
  • Antilipemic agentsAntilipemic agents: There are conflicting data from human study as to whether dietary mustard oil ingestion decreased cholesterol levels (9; 10; 7; 8). Some animal study has found that ingestion of mustard products reduced total serum cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and VLDL cholesterol, increased HDL cholesterol levels, and decreased serum lipoproteins and triglycerides (180; 168; 49), while another study found no effect (477), and another study found that short-term feeding of a 20% mustard oil caused erucic acid-induced lipidosis (181). Brassica juncea meal as protein supplement increased fat deposits in lambs (177).
  • AntineoplasticsAntineoplastics: According to reviews of human and animal study, high intakes of Brassica vegetables (such as mustard greens) possessed anticarcinogenic properties and reduced prostate cancer risk (23; 24). In animals study, mustard products inhibited the development of stomach and uterine cervical cancer (24), prostatic hyperplasia (25), neoplasms in the colon, rectum, and intestine (28; 29; 30; 31), and tumors in the progeny of pregnant mice sensitized to tumor development (27). In mice, mustard products protected against chromosomal damage (176; 48). In vitro, mustard products inhibited the proliferation of H-ras-transformed 3Y1 cells (33), human glioblastoma cell lines (37), and human-derived hepatoma cell line (HepG2) and breast cancer (MCF7) cells (34; 35; 36). However, there is in vitro and in vivo evidence that allyl isothiocyanate was tumorigenic at high doses (?25mcM) (174; 36; 173).
  • AntioxidantsAntioxidants: Mustard contains a variety of antioxidants, including kaempferol glycosides, sinapic acid, and sinapine (42; 43; 44). Mustard greens are high in antioxidants, including vitamins A and C (45). In human study, dietary mustard oil consumption protected against oxidative stress (7; 46). In animal study, mustard products decreased lipid peroxidation and increased the activity of glutathione S-transferase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase (24; 47; 482; 48; 49). In vitro, mustard extracts scavenged free radicals, decreased LDL peroxidation, and inhibited free radical-mediated protein damage (50; 51; 52; 53).
  • Anti-tinea capitis agentsAnti-tinea capitis agents: In in vitro and animal study, hair oils used in India, including mustard oil, inhibited the growth of Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton rubrum, and Trichophyton mentagrophytes, which might inhibit tinea capitis (96; 97).
  • AntiviralsAntivirals: Juncin, a protein isolated from seeds of Japanese takana (Brassica juncea var. integrifolia) inhibited the activity of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (34).
  • Cardiovascular herbs and supplementsCardiovascular herbs and supplements: Although there is some human evidence that regular mustard oil ingestion reduced the risk of myocardial infarction or cardiovascular disease (7; 8), one study found that it may cause degenerative cardiomyopathy (168). Animal study has reported conflicting evidence regarding the effect of mustard oil ingestion on cardiac mitochondrial oxidative capacity (170; 171). A dietary intake study reported that mustard oil extract containing alpha-linolenic acid reduced the risk of coronary artery disease (172).
  • Gastrointestinal herbs and supplementsGastrointestinal herbs and supplements: In mice, mustard oil administered intracolonically produced rapid, acute, and transient colitis, followed later by development of accelerated upper gastrointestinal transit that resembles human postinflammatory irritable bowel syndrome (258; 179; 259). There is evidence from animal study that allyl isothiocyanate suppressed acid secretion by gastric mucosa (95).
  • Herbs or supplements with monoamine oxidase inhibitor effectsHerbs or supplements with monoamine oxidase inhibitor effects: In rats, a erucic-acid-rich mustard oil diet increased both the biosynthesis and maturation of monoamine oxidase (213).
  • HypoglycemicsHypoglycemics: In animals with experimentally induced diabetes, Brassica juncea powder significantly prevented the development of insulin resistance and improved serum glucose levels (4; 66). Beneficial effects were also observed in rats taking an extract of Brassica juncea (53; 67; 68) or Brassica nigra (69; 70). Based on a review, Brassica juncea may possess hypoglycemic properties (82). In rats, Brassica juncea caused an increase in the concentration of hepatic glycogen and glycogenesis and a decrease in glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis (84).
  • ImmunosuppressantsImmunosuppressants: In animal study, mustard oil caused an increase in cytokines associated with macrophage and neutrophil activation and recruitment (258) but did not induce cutaneous neutrophil accumulation (479). In mice, mustard leaf suppressed nitric oxide synthesis by macrophages (480). However, juncin, a protein isolated from seeds of Japanese takana (Brassica juncea var. integrifolia) was devoid of nitric oxide inducing activity toward macrophages (34).
  • IronIron: Mustard leaves were a source of iron (483). Iron may affect the activity of aconitase purified from the leaves of Sinapis alba (484).
  • LaxativesLaxatives: In animal study, mustard oil accelerated the colonic transit time (178; 179).
  • Mosquito-repelling agentsMosquito-repelling agents: Brassica compestris oil repelled Anopheles culicifacies mosquitoes but was less effective against Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes (86). Brassica compestris decreased pupation rates and altered developmental periods and adult emergences of the Culex pipiens mosquito (87). Essential oils of Zanthoxylum limonella, Citrus aurantifolia, and Z. limonella in a mustard oil base protected against the bites of Aedes albopictus mosquitoes (88).
  • Skin productsSkin products: Although mustard oil is used as part of a traditional oil massage to neonates in many developing countries (11), there is evidence from an animal study that topical mustard oil exhibited toxic effects on mouse epidermal barrier function (13).
  • TobaccoTobacco: Based on epidemiological study, chemoprotective effects exhibited by dietary black mustard were inhibited by smokeless tobacco use (26).
  • Vasodilator herbs and supplementsVasodilator herbs and supplements: In animal study, cutaneous application, intra-arterial infusion, or oral application of mustard oil produced locally increased blood flow (98; 99; 100; 101; 102; 103; 104). However, one human study reported that topical application of mustard oil induced a decrease in skin surface temperature in both hands that was interpreted as vasoconstriction (481).

Mustard/Food Interactions:
  • Insufficient available information.

Mustard/Lab Interactions:
  • Blood pressureBlood pressure: In cats, corneal stimulation with mustard oil (used as a chemical irritant) increased the mean arterial pressure; lidocaine inhibited the former but not the latter response (183).
  • Clotting panelClotting panel: Based on animal study, oral mustard oil caused increased platelet aggregation (168).
  • GlucoseGlucose: In mice with experimentally induced diabetes, daily oral feeding of a mixture of powdered curry leaf and powdered Brassica juncea nonsignificantly improved serum glucose levels (66). In rats with experimentally induced diabetes, oral administration of Brassica juncea leaf extract reduced serum levels of glucose (53; 67). Similar effects were observed with oral administration of isorhamnetin diglucoside isolated from Brassica juncea leaf (68). In rats with experimentally induced diabetes, an extract of Brassica nigra taken orally reduced fasting serum glucose levels and lowered glycosylated hemoglobin (69; 70).
  • Heart rateHeart rate: In cats, corneal stimulation with mustard oil (used as a chemical irritant) increased the heart rate; lidocaine inhibited the former but not the latter response (183).
  • Lipid panelLipid panel: There are conflicting data from human study as to whether dietary mustard oil ingestion decreased cholesterol levels (9; 10; 7; 8). Some animal study has found that ingestion of mustard products reduced total serum cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and VLDL cholesterol, increased HDL cholesterol levels, and decreased serum lipoproteins and triglycerides (180; 168; 49), while another study found no effect (477), and another study found that short-term feeding of a 20% mustard oil caused erucic acid-induced lipidosis (181). Brassica juncea meal as protein supplement increased fat deposits in lambs (177).
  • Serum creatinineSerum creatinine: In mice with experimentally induced diabetes, daily oral feeding of a mixture of powdered curry leaf and powdered Brassica juncea nonsignificantly improved serum creatinine levels (66).
  • SomatostatinSomatostatin: In rats, mustard oil increased the somatostatin hormone content of skin samples without affecting plasma concentrations (485).
  • SteroidsSteroids: In animal study, corneal stimulation with mustard oil increased the plasma concentrations of adrenocorticotropin, epinephrine, and norepinephrine, and serum levels of corticosterone (182; 183; 184).
  • Urinary albuminUrinary albumin: In mice with experimentally induced diabetes, daily oral feeding of a mixture of powdered curry leaf and powdered Brassica juncea nonsignificantly improved urinary albumin levels (66).

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The information in this monograph is intended for informational purposes only, and is meant to help users better understand health concerns. Information is based on review of scientific research data, historical practice patterns, and clinical experience. This information should not be interpreted as specific medical advice. Users should consult with a qualified healthcare provider for specific questions regarding therapies, diagnosis and/or health conditions, prior to making therapeutic decisions.

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