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Glossary of Terms

Amino Acids

DL-PHENYLALANINE
This is a 50/50 ratio of both the D and the L forms of phenylalanine. Phenylketonurics should avoid DL-Phenylalanine.

GLYCINE
A non-essential amino acid that the human body uses to make DNA and collagen.**

HISTIDINE
A non-essential amino acid for adults but an essential amino acid for children. It is involved in the circulatory system.**

L-ARGININE
An all-purpose amino acid necessary for growth. This is an essential amino acid for children but, non-essential for adults. **

L-ASPARTIC ACID
A non-essential amino acid that contributes towards stamina and helps support the cardiovascular system.**

L-CARNITINE
A non-essential amino acid compound of the essential amino acids methionine and lysine. It transports fatty acids into the mitochondria and is used for fat metabolism.**

L-CYSTEINE
An essential amino acid only slightly different from cystine. They convert back and forth in the human body as needed and are connected to keratin, a hair building protein.**

L-GLUTAMINE
A non-essential amino acid (Glutamic Acid) that is found in abundance in muscles.**

L-ISOLEUCINE
An essential branch chain amino acid that is involved in growth and the production of energy.**

L-LEUCINE
An essential branch chain amino acid that is involved in muscle growth.**

L-LYSINE
An essential amino acid important for growth, tissue and collagen formation.**

L-METHIONINE
A sulfur containing essential amino acid necessary for the formation of collagen and carnitine. It helps in the breakdown of fat.**

L-ORNITHINE
A non-essential amino acid closely linked to arginine that is important in growth.**

L-PHENYLALANINE
An essential amino acid that is a precursor to L-Tyrosine. It is involved in many important functions of the human body.** Phenylketonurics should avoid L-Phenylalanine.

L-THREONINE
An essential amino acid that is an important constituent of collagen and elastin. It is involved in cellular membrane lipids.**

L-TYROSINE
A non-essential amino acid used by the thyroid gland. Tyrosine is involved in energy production.**

L-VALINE
An essential branch chain amino acid that is involved in the production of energy and growth.**

TAURINE
A non-essential amino acid that aids in fat metabolism.**

Excipients

ACACIA GUM
Function: Tablet Binder & Suspending Agent
A dry gummy exudate (sugars and celluloses) obtained from the stems and branches of various tropical trees and shrubs. The bark is incised and the exudate is allowed to dry on the bark. The dried exudate is then collected, cleaned and processed.

CALCIUM SILICATE
Function: Drying Agent
A compound of calcium and silicon dioxide derived from limestone and diatomaceous earth (the silicified skeletons of diatoms, a single celled plankton).

CELLULOSE
Function: Binder/Disintegrant
Obtained as pulp from fibrous plant materials.

CITRIC ACID
Function: Acidulant
Occurs naturally in a number of plant species or may be produced by fermentation of a carbohydrate such as molasses.

FRUCTOSE
Function: Sweetening Agent (Monosaccharide)
Occurs naturally in honey and a large number of fruits. It may be prepared by a number of methods from high fructose corn syrup, cornstarch, sucrose or dextrose. Absorbed more slowly than dextrose it is metabolized more rapidly. Fructose is 1.73% sweeter than sucrose and 2.33% sweeter than glucose. It provides 4 calories per gram

GELATIN
Function: Coating agent & Film Former (Capsule Shells)
Extracted from animal tissues rich in collagen (skin, sinews & bones), gelatin is an incomplete protein because it lacks the amino acid tryptophan.

GLUCOSE
Function: Sweetener (Monosaccharide)
Also known as dextrose, glucose occurs widely in plants and may be manufactured by acid and enzymatic hydrolysis of starch. Not as sweet as fructose or sucrose, it is rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. Glucose provides 4 calories per gram.

GLYCERIN
Function: Humectant
Also known as glycerol, glycerin is a fatty alcohol obtained from oils and fats but it can be produced synthetically. Not as sweet as sucrose. Glycerin provides 4.32 calories per gram.

GUAR GUM
Function: Binder
Guar gum is extracted from the seed pods of the guar tree (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) native to India and grown in the southwestern United States. It is a complex carbohydrate that swells when it comes into contact with water.

LECITHIN
Function: Emulsifier
Obtained from vegetable oils it is a mixture of phospholipids. Lecithin hydrolyses into phosphoric acid and glycerol and is distributed evenly throughout the body. Lecithin provides 8 calories per gram.

MAGNESIUM SILICATE
Function: Anti-Caking Agent
A compound of magnesium oxide and silicon dioxide, magnesium silicate occurs naturally as a mineral or it can be prepared from sodium silicate & magnesium sulfate.

MAGNESIUM STEARATE
Function: Lubricant
A mixture of solid organic acids prepared by the interaction of magnesium oxide & stearic acid.

MALTODEXTRIN
Function: Diluent
A non-sweet carbohydrate containing D-Glucose units. Maltodextrin is prepared by the partial hydrolysis of cornstarch and provides 4 calories per gram.

MANNITOL
Function: Sweetening Agent/Granulation Agent
A sugar alcohol (2.4 calories per gram) half as sweet as sucrose, mannitol can be extracted from seaweed or the dried sap of manna (exudate from the bark of certain trees). It can also be produced by the reduction of monosaccharides.

OLIGOSACCHARIDES
Function: Bulking Agent
Non-digestible fiber derived from chicory roots. Oligosaccharides can stimulate the growth of beneficial colonic bacteria.

SILICA
Function: Anti-Caking Agent
Silica is a mineral that is prepared synthetically.

SORBITOL
Function: Humectant/Sweetening Agent
A sugar alcohol related to mannose and isomeric with mannitol. It occurs naturally in ripe berries and can be found in powder form.
Sorbitol can be prepared by the reduction of corn syrup or glucose. It is half as sweet as sucrose providing 3.6 calories per gram.

STEARIC ACID
Function: Lubricant
Stearic acid is manufactured by the hydrogenation of vegetable oils.

SUCRALOSE
Function: Sweetener
A high intensity sucrose derivative approximately 600 times sweeter than sucrose. It is produced by substituting 3 chlorine atoms for 3 hydroxyl groups in the sucrose molecule. Sucralose is a non-caloric sweetener.

Herbals

ASTRAGALUS (Astragalus membranaceus)

Classically used in the Orient as an adaptogen.**

BLACK WALNUT/WORMWOOD
Used to support internal cleansing.**

CAT'S CLAW (Uncaria tomentosa or Una de Gato)
The wonder herb of the Peruvian rain forest is known for its immune supporting benefits.**

CHASTE TREE BERRY
Known as the "women's" herb and widely used in Europe for PMS and menopause.**

DONG QUAI (Angelica sinensis)
A "woman's" herb considered in Chinese herbalism to be the premier tonic for women.**

ECHINACEA (E. angustifolia, E. purpurea and E. pallida)
A tonic to increase immune function. Traditionally used by the American Plains Indian tribes.**

ELDER BERRY (Sambucus)
Used to support the immune system.**

ELEUTHERO (SIBERIAN GINSENG) (Eleutherococcus senticosus)
May help boost stamina.**

FEVERFEW (Tanacetum parthenium)
Used by herbalists for centuries.**

GINGER
Used as an aid to digestion traditionally used in Ayurvedic herbalism.**

GINKGO BILOBA
Widely used in Europe and Japan, Ginkgo is particularly associated with helping mild memory problems associated with aging.**

GOLDENSEAL (Hydrastis canadensis)
Especially useful in conjunction with Echinacea to help support the immune system.**

GOTU KOLA
Used as an Ayurvedic herb to aid relaxation.**

KAVA KAVA ROOT (Piper methysticum)
Traditionally used in the South Pacific as a relaxant herb.**

KOREAN GINSENG (Panax ginseng)
Traditionally used in the Orient to help increase energy, endurance and vigor; an adaptogen and general tonic.**

MILK THISTLE (Silymarin marianum)
Also known as Wild Artichoke, it is one of the most anciently used herbs. Traditionally used to support liver function.**

PASSION FLOWER (Passiflora)
For over 200 years this herb has been used for its calming properties .** Passiflora is commonly blended with Valerian and Kava Kava.

PYGEUM (Pygeum africanum)
An Evergreen tree native to Africa. Its bark has been used for centuries to help support male health.**

SAW PALMETTO (Serenoa repens)
A small palm tree native to North America. The berry is used traditionally to support the prostate.**

SCHIZANDRA (Schizandra chinensis)
Has been classified as an adoptogen which helps to balance the body.**

ST. JOHN'S WORT (Hypericum perforatum)
Hypericum, the active compound, is now recognized as helping to improve mood. St John's Wort may indirectly influence serotonin levels in the brain.**

UVA URSI (Arctostaphylos uva ursi)
This herb has been used in Europe for centuries to help support the urinary tract.**

VALERIAN (Valeriana officinalis)
Popular in Europe as an aid to sleep.**

WILD CHERRY BARK (Prunus serotina)
Traditionally used to help support the lungs.**

WILD YAM (Dioscorea villosa)
Supplies precursors to the body's hormones progesterone and estrogen.**

YOHIMBE (Wild African Bark) (Corynanthe yohimbi)
Traditionally used to help increase libido.**

Vitamin B

(NIACIN)
Essential to the nervous system. Niacin aids in the breakdown and utilization of protein, fats and carbohydrate.**

(PANTOTHENIC ACID)
Occurring in all living cells, Pantothenic Acid is easily depleted. It is essential in the utilization of other vitamins and aids in the formation of hormones affecting stress.**

B1 (THIAMIN)
Aids in proper sugar and carbohydrate metabolism and supports energy production.**

B12 (CYANOCOBALAMIN & METHYLCOBALAMIN)
Essential for the formation of red blood cells and is involved in the production of myelin, a fatty substance found in the sheath that covers our nerves.**

B2 (RIBOFLAVIN)
Contributes to red blood cell formation and is essential for the metabolism of fats, carbohydrate and protein. Necessary for the maintenance of eyes and skin.**

B6 (PYRIDOXINE)
Essential for growth and maintenance of body structures. Aids in the utilization of amino acids.**

BIOTIN
Helps maintain hair, scalp, and nails.**

CHOLINE
Present in the body's living cells, Choline aids the utilization of fats and cholesterol. A basic component of lecithin, Choline helps optimum nerve function.**

DIBENCOZIDE
The active coenzyme form of Vitamin B12. Using B12 in this active form is a more direct approach to Vitamin B12 supplementation. Vitamin B-12 plays a role in blood formation.**

FOLIC ACID
Plays a role in a variety of body processes. It works together with vitamin B-12 to metabolize amino acids.**

INOSITOL
Closely associated with Choline and found in Lecithin, Inositol aids in the metabolism of fat.**

PABA (PARA-AMINOBENZOIC ACID)
PABA helps the formation of folic acid and the metabolism of protein.**

**These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. These products are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.
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